"We consider the very formulation of the issue outrageous and unacceptable," Peskov told reporters.
The Russian diplomat added that "Russia, like a number of other states, does not recognize the jurisdiction of this court and, consequently, any such decision is void for Russia from a legal point of view."
The ICC measure is also directed against the Presidential Commissioner for Children's Rights in Russia, Maria Lvova-Belova. According to the Hague court, the Russian President and the Commissioner for Children's Rights bear individual and command responsibility for what it calls a war crime: the alleged deportation of Ukrainian minors to Russian territory.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov called the situation "outrageous" and "unacceptable".
Ukrainian Prosecutor General Andriy Kostin says the decision is "historic".
Ukraine, like the United States, isn't an ICC member either.
The Russian Foreign Ministry also rejected the ICC's allegations. "Russia is not a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and has no obligations under it," spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said.
The Rome Statute that created the ICC has been ratified by 123 countries. Neither Russia nor Ukraine has ratified it, nor have the U.S., China or Israel.
The United States has adopted a law providing for the use of all necessary and appropriate means to obtain the release of an American serviceman or officer in the event of detention at the request of the ICC.