In addition, capital punishment was established for those cases in which the rape victim was killed or remained in a vegetative state.
One of the most important innovations introduced by that law was the criminalization of sexual harassment and established penalties from three to seven years for those who committed it.
However, legislation passed after the Nirbhaya case, which also toughened punishments for acid attacks on women, did not criminalize rapes that occur within marriage.
In 2013, one of the rapists committed suicide in prison and another of the detainees was released in 2015 after serving three years of internment because he was a minor when he committed the crime.
His release generated more social outrage and, just two days later, the Indian Parliament approved legal changes whereby minors between the ages of 16 and 18 can be tried as adults and sentenced to long terms in prison.
In 2012, when the Nirbhaya case occurred, there were 24,206 complaints of rape in India; the following year, 33,764 complaints were filed.
Since then, on average, there have been more than 33,000 complaints a year, a figure that is partly due to increased social awareness of violence against women.
In 2018, India recorded 33,356 rape complaints, i.e. more than 90 rapes per day, according to the National Crime Registry Agency of India (NCRB).