23 July 2015 - 09:55 AM
Colombian Peace Process Timeline
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This article complements teleSUR’s agenda piece: The Colombian Peace Process Explained. Please see that article for more background and context information on the following.

FARC: Ivan Marquez


July 23: Thirty-ninth round of peace talks begin in Havana, this time with mediators from the U.N. present.

July 20: Unilateral four-month FARC cease-fire begins. “At 00:00 on June 20, the order to re-initiate the cessation of all aggressive actions against the armed forces of the state, as well as private and public infrastructure, will begin,” said FARC spokesperson Ivan Marquez in a press conference.

July 19: The FARC releases Cristian Moscoso Rivera, an army lieutenant detained by the rebels July 7. Moscoso revealed in a video, “They treated me with dignity, from the moment we were caught in an ambush”.

July 15: The FARC will extend its temporary unilateral cease-fire to last four months, announces President Santos.

July 12: After the FARC announced it will instigate a new, temporary unilateral cease-fire starting July 20, the government responded by saying it will match the rebels’ cease-fire with a de-escalation agreement.

July 6: President Santos announces a shakeup of military leadership, with newly appointed heads of the country's army, navy, and air force. Santos named General Alberto Mejia as army commander, Admiral Leonardo Santamaria as navy commander, and General Carlos Buenos as air force commander.

July 5: Colombian government says for the first time it is open to the idea of a bilateral cease-fire before the end of the peace talks.

July 2: The FARC reaches out to the government after an alleged ELN bomb explodes in Bogota, saying its response was the right one, but reiterating calls for a cease-fire.

June 22: A FARC bomb hits an oil pipeline, causing environmental damage. The rebels release an apology for the spill, an “undesired consequence of war,” but maintain that the government must also accept responsibility, as it refuses to halt aggression, despite the peace talks.

June 17: Peace talks begin 38th cycle, in spite of the increased government military offensive against the rebels. FARC calls for a cease-fire. Former Colombian presidential candidate Clara Lopez tells teleSUR the talks are at a critical point.

June 14: President Santos announces the army killed ELN leader Jose Amin Hernandez Manrique, aka "Marquitos," in the northern department of Antioquia.

June 13: President Santos announces the country’s armed forces will intensify their attacks against guerrilla groups, despite the peace talks with the FARC.

June 10: EU leaders express support for peace process at CELAC-EU summit.

June 7: A joint team of Colombian military soldiers and FARC rebels begin removing land mines in the northwestern department of Antioquia.

June 4: Government and FARC officially agree to create a truth commission to investigate war crimes.

May 31: FARC launches its first major attack since ending their unilateral ceasefire, cutting power to the city of Buenaventura. Jailed FARC commander Simon Trinidad calls for extradition from the United States to Colombia.

May 29: Government and FARC agree to de-mining program.

May 27: Peace advocates call for a bilateral ceasefire, after finding the FARC’s unilateral ceasefire had reduced fighting by nearly 90 percent. The FARC accuses the military of executing wounded fighters after an airstrike in Cauca a week earlier.

May 26: FARC commander Roman Ruiz is killed.

May 25: FARC warns the government offensive is undermining peace talks.

May 24: FARC calls for ceasefire.

May 22: FARC ends unilateral ceasefire. Santos vows to continue offensive.

May 21: Santos announces that he has added the country’s minister of foreign affairs Maria Angela Holguin to the government’s negotiation team in the 37th round of peace talks. Reports also surface that dozens of FARC fighters have been killed in an army offensive.

May 16: The Colombian government suspends arrest warrants against FARC leader Timoleon Jimenez, allowing him to travel to Cuba to participate in peace talks.

May 3: Peace talks resume in Havana, with the FARC proposing a truth commission to investigate war crimes.

April 27: Allegations surface that opponents of the peace process have attacked human rights activist Piedad Cordoba.

April 23: Former Uruguayan president Jose Mujica offers to help out as a mediator in the Colombia peace talks in Havana.

April 22: United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urges Santos to accelerate the peace process.

April 21: Santos vows to resist pressure from opposition parties wanting to ditch peace talks, but says military operations against the FARC will continue.

April 18: Reports surface that contradict government claims that the military was caught in a sudden FARC ambush earlier in the week, and was unable to defend itself.

April 15: Santos responds to criticism from Uribe, who fiercely opposes the peace process.

April 14: Government blames FARC for deadly clashes that leave at least 11 soldiers dead, and prompt the resumption of air raids against FARC camps.

April 12: The attorney general announces 22 military generals are being investigated for suspicion of involvement in the false positives scandal. The scandal centered around claims soldiers knowingly massacred civilians.

​April 10: The 35th round of peace talks begins.

April 9: Millions of Colombians take to the streets to march for peace, and in solidarity with victims of war. Santos announces suspension of air raids will continue for another month.

March 25: Piedad Cordoba announces that Argentine soccer legend Diego Armando Maradona will play in a “Match for Peace” to promote the end to the armed conflict.

March 23: The FARC says it will begin a humanitarian process of removing landmines.

March 8: The “March For Life” in Bogota takes place, which many see as a nod of approval for the peace process. President Santos attends.

March 1: The U.S. special envoy to the Colombia peace talks, Bernard Aronson, meets with Colombian government and FARC officials.

Feb. 26: Former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan arrives in Cuba to hold meetings with the parties in the hope of accelerating the peace process.

Feb. 20: U.S. President Barack Obama names veteran diplomat Bernard Aronson as special envoy to the ongoing Colombia peace talks on Feb. 20.

Feb. 17: The FARC announces it will discharge its 13 fighters who are under the age of 15, and will no longer recruit youths under 17.

Feb. 7: The FARC calls for a cleanup of the state to purge officials or authority figures who participated in the process of victimization.
Meanwhile, Santos is at the World Bank, securing post-conflict initiatives, which would provide further incentive to reach an agreement in 2015.

Feb. 2: The first round of peace talks in 2015 starts in Havana.

Jan. 14: After years of refusing calls by the FARC rebels for a bilateral cease-fire, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos instructs his negotiators in Havana to settle on terms for an armistice.

Jan. 13: Human rights defender and former Senator Piedad Cordoba, herself one of the victims chosen to bear witness at the peace talks, reports she is receiving death threats due to her participation.

Jan. 8: The government passes a law that will allow citizens to vote on whether to approve the terms of the peace negotiations, if an agreement is reached in time for the country’s October elections.

Jan. 1: The FARC releases a New Year greeting reiterating its unilateral cease-fire, denouncing hostile acts by the national army, which threaten the peace process, and also reiterating the call for peace: "The time has come, then, to silence the bullets and bombs, time to change the discourse, to change the warmongering language...”


Dec. 20: The FARC declares it will respect a cease-fire from its side as of today, and calls on the government to make it bilateral.

Dec. 19: The government’s chief negotiator welcomes the FARC’s public recognition of atrocities they have committed and emphasized the government’s own recognition of its culpability in violent acts during the conflict.

Dec. 16: The fifth and final victims’ group join peace talks in Havana.

Dec. 2: Santos warns the army against sabotaging the peace process, which some officials have privately expressed disagreement with, as one of the requirements of the talks is to pause military operations while they are in progress.

Nov. 30: The FARC releases Gen. Alzate, Gloria Urrego and Jorge Rodriguez.

Nov. 21: Santos objects to allegations that Alzate was dressed in civilian clothing in a dangerous area, taking security protocols for granted.

Nov. 16: After a general, Ruben Alzate, and his companions, disappear in the jungle of Choco province, president Juan Manuel Santos suspends the 32nd round of peace talks in Havana.

Oct. 3: The FARC publishes a document on the dismantling and investigation of paramilitary phenomena in Colombia. It elaborates on the third topic on the guerrilla movement’s agenda — the end of the conflict — which, it says, must be deliberated in a “simultaneous and indivisible” fashion.

Sept 24: Santos releases draft peace documents and agreements so far at the U.N. General Assembly in New York.

Sept. 23: Peace talks resume.

Sept. 11: The 28th round of negotiations ends in Havana. Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos assured that there won't be a ceasefire — as was initially proposed by the second group of victims participating in the peace talks — until an agreement is reached.

On the other hand FARC chief negotiator Ivan Marquez says he is pleased because of the "dynamics favorable to reaching the peace,” the dialogue is promoting.

Sept. 10: Victims of the internal conflict in Colombia demand a bilateral ceasefire between the guerrilla group and the Colombian Armed Forces, also urging that their rights as victims of the conflict be recognized and respected.

Sept. 9: Second victims’ group joins the peace talks. Eight of the 12 representatives in the delegation are women, reflecting the heavy price women have paid during the internal conflict.

Sept. 7: The gender sub-commission is created. Each party has five members in to focus on gender issues.

Sept. 7: The FARC proposes to create a conflict victim compensation fund, consisting of 3 percent of the country’s GDP, which translates to US$11.3 billion.

The FARC says victims should not only be compensated economically, but also politically, socially, culturally, symbolically and psycho-socially.

Sept. 3: A comprehensive victims' rights for peace and national reconciliation plan is presented in a joint communique between the FARC and the Colombian government.

Sept. 2: The FARC’s Pablo Catatumbo outlines plans to regulate the paramilitary situation via the Guerrilla Normalization Commando, in response to Juan Manuel Santos’ initiative to create a Transitional Command.

The FARC also requests Santos' government refrains from making unilateral decisions in the peace process.

Sept. 1: Peace talks resume in Havana. The impact on victims is the main topic of discussion.

Meanwhile, in Colombia, FARC leaders reject President Juan Manuel Santos' claims that the two sides were close to reaching a peace agreement. The FARC request an urgent meeting with the government to discuss progress towards peace. They also accuse the government of manipulating and unilaterally modifying the general accords being discussed in Havana. The rebel leadership expresses its objection to Santos' decision to include a military delegation in the peace talks.

Aug. 22: The Historical Commission of the Conflict and their Victims is set up comprising of 12 members. It is considered the first truth commission in Colombia. After the commission, President Santos established May 25 as the national day for the dignity of the female victims of sexual violence during the armed conflict.

Aug. 16: The first group of victims of the conflict meet in Havana with government and FARC delegates. It is to be the first of five such meetings.

Aug. 13: The FARC proposes to create a victim compensation fund to economically compensate the people affected by the armed conflict.

Aug. 12: The start of the 27th round of negotiations. Delegates discuss the civil war's impact on its victims. A bilateral ceasefire is also up for discussion. President Juan Manuel Santos expresses that he wants to conclude the talks by the end of the year, which FARC leader Rodrigo Londoño says is unlikely. Nevertheless, the group expresses its intentions to continue with the peace talks. The FARC negotiator also rejects a "Legal Framework for Peace" that was proposed and approved by Santos without consulting the rebels.

Aug. 3: The National Forum of Victims of the Conflict in Cali (western Colombia). There, victims were given the opportunity to draft proposals for the peace talks in Havana.

June 7: In a joint statement, the FARC and the government announce the principles for discussing the fifth topic on the agenda: victims, resulting in a 10-point resolution. Also, they announce the creation of a commission to discuss the 3rd topic on the agenda: the end of the conflict. The historical commission of the conflict and victims will also be created. They agree on the organization of forums about victims, and receive representative groups of victims of the conflict as well as create a sub-commission on gender.

June 5: The FARC hails Santos' proposal for ending Colombia's military service. The FARC also say they don’t expected this to just be an election promise.

June 4: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos announces that he would end Colombia’s mandatory military service in the event that a peace deal emerges. “If Colombia achieves peace, which we will this year, I will immediately eliminate the mandatory military service,” Santos told the press.

May 20: The FARC and ELN guerrillas announce a unilateral ceasefire to last until May 28 in support of the country’s elections, held May 25. "This serves as a light of hope for a bilateral ceasefire," says FARC delegate Pablo Catatumbo.

May 16: The FARC presents “The General Guidelines for an Open National Assembly Process.” It is a document intended to describe how to subsequently build a new post-capitalist Colombia.

May 16: A partial agreement is reached on the 4th topic on the common agenda: Illicit drugs. Both parties agreed to eliminate all illicit drug production in Colombia if a deal is reached.

"This way we eliminate what has fueled the conflict in Colombia for decades," said Colombian chief negotiator, former vice-President Humberto de la Calle in the 36th joint communique. He added this was a "fundamental step" toward peace. There were some exceptions: to immediately stop glyphosate fumigation, to fully compensate the victims and to create a new policy on crime.

May 12: Cycle 25 of the Peace Talks begins. The FARC requests that the government refrains from letting electioneering tactics interfere in the peace process in the context of the national elections to be held on May 25.

May 4: The 24th Cycle of the peace talks ends with the announcement that drug trafficking wasn't completely covered in the agenda, necessitating a further round of talks to be scheduled from May 12 to May 23.

April 24: The Colombian government and the FARC resume peace talks on illicit drugs, the third topic on the agenda.

April 4: The Colombian government, under an initiative of High Peace Commissioner Sergio Jaramillo and Interior Minister Aurelio Iragorri, create the Mayors and Governors for Peace Network to strengthen communication between local and regional government leaders.

Feb. 2: A delegation of the Colombian government, headed by former vice-president Humberto de la Calle, travels to Cuba to resume the peace talks with the FARC.

Jan. 30: Colombia's State Council urges President Santos to include anti-personnel mines in the peace talks.

Jan. 19: The FARC presents five proposals on anti-drug policies:

1. Design and implement a “National Program for illicit marijuana, poppy and coca leaf crop-substitution.”

2. Recognize and respect peasant, indigenous and Afro-descendant communities.

3. Prioritize Human Rights in policies of illicit crop substitution.

4. Ensure the well-being of peasant communities and their families.

5. Improve living conditions for coca, poppy and marijuana plantation workers.

Jan. 15: The FARC announces the end of the unilateral holiday cease-fire it had declared on Dec. 15.

Jan. 13: The FARC and the Colombian government resume peace talks following the Christmas cease-fire.

Jan. 9: The Venezuelan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Office confirms in a statement that the FARC member Julian Conrado, who had been detained in Venezuela, will be part of the peace talks with the Colombian government.


Dec. 24: The FARC and the ELN (National Liberation Army), in a joint statement, ask Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos to help bring the peace talks to the ELN.

Dec. 20: The FARC's second-in-command and head of negotiations, Ivan Marquez, presents a National Assembly plan oriented to peace. The intention is to ratify any agreement reached during the peace talks.

Dec. 15: A 30 day unilateral ceasefire by FARC begins in honor of Christmas celebrations.

Dec. 8: Another round of negotiations focused on finding solutions to the illegal drug trade is completed.

Nov. 28: The FARC and the Government resume the 17th cycle of peace talks. The debate focuses on a common topic in the agenda: finding solutions to illicit drug crops and to drug trafficking.

Nov. 26: Santos reinforces the government team involved in the peace talks with Nigeria Renteria and Maria Paulina Riveros. Both women would be plenipotentiary negotiators with the same status that negotiators already working on the process had.

Nov. 22: Activist and former Senator Piedad Cordoba, also a spokeswoman of Colombians for Peace, sends a letter to Juan Manuel Santos and the FARC asking for “an agreement” on a ceasefire, from Dec. 16 to June 2014.

Nov. 6: The FARC and the Government of Colombia finally agree on the political participation of the guerrilla group. It was the second topic on the agenda.

Nov. 5: The FARC declares that the debate will continue. They are also working on reaching an agreement regarding political participation, which is the second topic on the agenda. They hope to publish the agreement shortly.

Nov. 3: Colombian local newspapers publish that Juan Manuel Santos seeks a Latin American Summit to gain international support for the peace talks with FARC. This is not confirmed by any official source.

Nov. 2: With the peace talk cycles soon coming to a close, the FARC announces it wishes to extend the talks in order to reach an agreement on political participation.

Oct. 26: President Santos urges the FARC to speed up the negotiations between the two parties in Havana in order to reach an agreement. The FARC responds that negotiations are progressing as planned.

Oct. 17: First anniversary of the Colombian peace talks. After 15 cycles of negotiations between the FARC and the Colombian government delegates, no agreements have been reached yet under the five-point joint agenda.

Oct. 13: The 15th cycle of peace talks finish in Havana. No progress has been made on the topic of political participation.

Oct. 12: From Cuba, the FARC launch a website dedicated to debate the guerrilla group’s proposals for a more just and egalitarian society.

Oct. 8: The Colombian government proposes to halt the peace talks during the 2014 electoral campaign. The following day, the FARC states that it would accept the suspension as soon as it is officially requested.

Oct. 3: The 15th cycle of peace talks start. The FARC appeals “never again” to civil war, as well as for a compensation of the victims of the armed conflict. After a two-week recess, the FARC declares that it is in favor of a collective pardon.

Oct. 1: The national forum “The Solution to the Problem of Illicit Drugs” is held again, this time in San Jose de Guaviare, southern Colombia.

Sept. 29: On the close of the 14th cycle of peace talks in Havana, Uruguayan President Jose Mujica says that everything must be done to support national reconciliation in Colombia.

Sept. 24: The United Nations and the National University organize a forum called, “The Solution to the Problem of Illicit Drugs” in Bogota (Colombia's capital). At the U.N., Santos is again questioned about the ongoing peace process in his country.

Sept. 9: Peace delegations of the FARC and the Colombian government ask the U.N. and the National University to organize a forum about illicit drugs. This is the fourth topic on the agenda since peace talks began.

Aug. 21: The FARC makes its first declaration, recognizing its responsibility in Colombia's armed conflict. Pablo Catatumbo, on behalf of the group, asks for a special commission to record the history of the conflict, as well as everyone's responsibility in it.

July 1: One month after signing the agricultural agreement, the peace talks resume in Havana. The FARC issues a statement agreeing to include the National Liberation Army (ELN) in the talks.

May 26: The signing of the first agricultural agreement between the FARC and the Colombian government. After six months of negotiations, the insurgency and the authorities reached the first pact in regards to the Integral Agricultural Development Policy, which covers protection of the Campesino Reserve Zones.

May 24: The second phase of the regional peace talks starts in the Colombian Caribbean to hear the opinions of the victims of the conflict and bring them to the dialogue between the government and the FARC. At the same time, the FARC announce they are willing to complete the first agricultural agreement within the next few days and ask the presidential candidates to commit to the peace talks as well.

May 15: After 11 days of recess, both parties return to the Palace of Conventions in Havana. It is Cycle 9 of the process and the participants highlight a draft that outlines an important step forward in the peace process, which includes issues such as development with a territorial focus, infrastructure, land planning and incentives for agricultural production.

May 14: Pope Francis and Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos have a brief meeting to discuss topics such as the peace process and the challenges Colombia faces, particularly, social inequality.

May 12: More than 2,000 women of all regions of Colombia and the world are present at the First National and International Meeting of Woman for Dignity and Peace in the southern Colombian city of Florencia. The event’s objective is to confirm the commitment to defend and respect human dignity, as well as the need to include women in the construction of a comprehensive peace process with an emphasis on social justice.

May 6: The second phase of the regional peace talks is launched in Bogota to hear the opinions of the victims of the armed conflict and take them to the negotiation table in Havana. As in the first round, each regional peace conference lasts two days. It’s also announced that proposals from 1,333 organizations, networks and national platforms were received during Cycle One of the peace talks.

May 2: The FARC ask the U.S. Government for a pardon for rebel leader Simon Trinidad so he can participate in the Colombian Peace Talks. The rebel spokesman Ivan Marquez reiterates the petition in favor of Trinidad as a “gesture that would contribute to the peace process in Colombia.”

April 28-30: The Political Participation Forum takes place in Bogota with 1,400 representatives of social movements and political parties, and foreign activists. Proposals are made to incorporate the FARC into the political process. At the close of the event, insurgents thank the United Nations for their mediation in the talks.

April 24: The FARC present national reform proposals, which include ending neoliberal policies and a call for a National Assembly. They also propose including democratic and institutions to promote peace in the nation.

April 23: After a month-long recess, the Colombian government traveled to Cuba to resume the eighth phase of negotiations with the FARC. It is expected that accords about land tenancy be materialized, and that the debate for political participation and safeguards for the opposition begins.

April 9: Millions of Colombians take to the streets of Bogota in support of the peace process. President Juan Manuel Santos participates in the march, along with former rebels and leftist groups.

April 4: The FARC’s second in command, Ivan Marquez, says he regrets the opposition to the peace process expressed by former presidents Andres Pastrana and Alvaro Uribe, saying that both men “want a Colombia eternally locked in the dark night of violence.”

April 1: The insurgency deny that there is a crisis in the peace talks with the Colombian government and assured that negotiations would transpire “as usual” with consultations, defining issues and the revision of related documents.

March 27: Families of the 10 uniformed personnel detained by the FARC ask the rebel group and the Colombian government to resume peace talks after scheduling the release of these persons on April 2 and 4, respectively.

March 22: Negotiations between the Colombian government and insurgents continue without reaching any agreement. The seventh phase of negotiations is concluded.

March 13: The FARC expresses optimism regarding the progress of the peace talks and a reaching mutual understanding with the government of Juan Manuel Santos. Ivan Marquez, head of the rebel delegation in the peace talks, said the FARC is very “willing and hopeful to get started” with talks on political participation.

March 4: A new phase of the negotiations concludes without significant progress.

Feb. 28: The FARC ratify the need to come to a political solution to the social and armed conflict in Colombia.

Feb. 23: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos threatens to abandon the peace talks with the FARC if the process does not progress, and he also warns that there will be no truce as requested by the insurgents.

Feb. 20: More than 1,000 social organizations inaugurate Bogota's National Assemblies for Peace with Social Justice in Colombia. The event's objective is to debate the South American country’s political reality in order to come up with alternatives to end the internal conflict. At the same time, the FARC request that the participation of civilians in the peace talks not be obstructed.

Feb. 18: Another week of peace talks in Havana begins with renewed enthusiasm.

Feb. 11: The Colombian government warns the FARC that there is no room for new topics in the agenda.

Feb. 10: The fourth round of negotiations ends.

Feb. 9: The FARC demands land for peasants.

Feb. 8: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos insists on the need of speedy negotiations.

Feb. 4: The Catholic Church of Colombia backs the peace process and asks the country for support.

Jan. 25: “The negotiations are progressing well” with results, but we still have “differences”, said a member of the rebel group.

Jan. 21: A new round of negotiations begins.


Dec. 19: The Agricultural Forum ends with complaints concerning concentration of land and calls for demilitarization of the territory.

Dec. 17: Civil society begins its participation in the peace talks at the Agricultural Forum.

Dec. 14: The Agricultural Forum is launched to organize the proposals coming from civil society.

Dec. 13: The second rebel force of Colombia, the 2,500-strong National Liberation Army (ELN, by its Spanish acronym), reiterates that it wants to participate in an “exploratory peace dialogue”.

Dec. 10: Negotiators receive peace proposals from civilian society.

Dec. 7: United States again tells the FARC it will not release Simon Trinidad so that he can participate in the peace talks. Colombians participate in the peace process by accessing a website.

Dec. 5: The Colombian government asks the FARC to clarify whether it still has prisoners. Negotiations resume in Havana.

Dec. 3: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos affirms that there is positive progress being made at the peace talks.

Nov. 30: The South American Nations Union (Unasur) backs the Colombian peace process.

Nov. 29: The first round of negotiations concludes. “The dialogue is advancing as planned,” the Colombian government reports.

Nov. 26: The representatives in the peace process open the dialogue to civilian participation. An agreement is reached to hold the Forum for Integral Agricultural Development Policies on December 17-19.

Nov. 23: Progress is reported in the peace talks in Cuba.

Nov. 22: Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos admits that peace talks with insurgents will require complex decisions to be made.

Nov. 20: The Colombian Army continues its anti-guerrilla operations despite the unilateral cease fire declared by the rebels.

Nov. 19: The FARC declare a unilateral cease fire to take place from November 20 to January 20. The second-in-command, Ivan Marquez, makes the announcement in Havana.

Nov. 13: The second rebel group of Colombia, the National Liberation Army (ELN, by its Spanish acronym) announces its willingness to begin “exploratory peace dialogues”, three days negotiations between the FARC and the Colombian Government Havana commence.

Nov. 6: The government of Colombia and the FARC meet in Havana to sort out logistical details of the negotiations scheduled for November 15, 2012.

Oct. 18: The composition of the dialogue is announced: The government will be represented by former vice President Humberto de la Calle; High Peace Adviser Sergio Jaramillo; president of the National Industrialists Association of Colombia, Carlos Villegas; and Army General Jorge Enrique Mora Rangel, and Police General Oscar Naranjo. The FARC will be represented by Ivan Marquez, Rodrigo Granda, Jesus Emilio Carvajalino and Luis Alberto Alban.

Oct. 18: The peace talks formally begin in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. The Colombian government and the FARC agree on the negotiations agenda. The first item on the agenda will be land tenancy.

Oct. 4: Juan Manuel Santos confirms that negotiations with the FARC will take place in October in Oslo, capital of Norway. Santos says that after six months of “exploratory conversations,” both parts in conflict have signed a document with five points of discussion: the problem of land ownership; the deposition of arms; the integration of rebels into politics; the solution to the problem of drug trafficking, and the compensation for victims of the conflict.

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