The protest was driven by the chaotic situation in the state of Amazonas, where its capital Manaus experienced a serious lack of hospital beds and oxygen to treat patients.
Shouting "Genocide" and "Get out Bolsonaro," loud protests were seen in the largest cities, including Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Brasilia, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Florianopolis, Salvador, Recife, among others.
On Friday, Bolsonaro, whose vaccination plan has been highly criticized for not offering specific dates, announced a new delay in purchasing COVID-19 vaccines produced by the British AstraZeneca laboratory.
With 200,000 lives lost, Bolsonaro and his government are accused of genocide for their response to the pandemic and delays to vaccination programmes.
As of Sunday morning, Brazil continued to rank third globally in terms of confirmed COVID-19 cases, reporting over 8.4 million cases and more than 208,000 related deaths.
The Workers Party (PT), the Communist Party (CP), the Sustainability Party (RS), among other opposition sectors, announced that a complaint would be filed before the Parliament to request Bolsonaro's impeachment.
"The President must be politically and criminally responsible for leaving the Amazon without oxygen, for sabotaging research and vaccination campaigns, for discouraging the use of masks, and encouraging the use of ineffective medicines," an opposition spokesperson said.
"Brazil is dying suffocated by this President. Enough is enough!... It is time for the Parliament to react."