The images of the Prophet Muhammad were first published years ago by the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, whose editorial offices were attacked by armed men in 2015, killing 12 people.
The demonstration was led by the Islamist party Islamic Movement of Bangladesh and, according to police figures, began around 10:30 a.m. (04:30 GMT) at the northern gate of the Baitul Mukarram mosque in the capital.
In Dhaka, police estimated that more than 40,000 people joined the march organized by the Andolan Islamiyah Bangladesh (IAB), one of the country's largest Islamist parties.
The protest was stopped before it could approach the French embassy in the city, as hundreds of police officers set up barricades with barbed wire to block the protesters, who dispersed without violence.
The march began in front of the Baitul Mukarram, the main mosque in Bangladesh, a country whose population is mostly Muslim.
Similar protests have occurred in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Pakistan, Jordan, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia, among other Arab nations.