"Europe needs to be willing to get wet if it wants to swim against the dangerous tide of U.S. unilateralism," he told the conference, saying that Iran for now was committed to a 2015 nuclear deal with world powers.
Zarif's speech came a day after U.S. Vice President Mike Pence urged Germany, France and Britain to follow Washington in withdrawing from the deal and to "stop undermining U.S. sanctions."
The United States had an "unhealthy fixation" or "obsession" with Iran, said Zarif.
The United States withdrew from the 2015 Iran nuclear deal in May last year and reimposed sanctions against Tehran. Other countries in the deal, including the major European powers such as Germany, France and Britain, have since tried to keep the deal alive.