"Our artillery and F-16 (warplanes) are all operating in the field," Erdogan said in a televised speech.
"We have soldiers martyred, and it is not possible for us to remain silent," he added.
Turkish forces have identified about 40 spots, and around "30 to 35 Syrians on the opposite side have been neutralized" after the attack, Erdogan noted.
The president also pointed out that the counterpart for his country, in this case, is the Syrian regime and not the Russian authorities.
"We are determined to continue our operations to ensure the safety of our country, our nation, and our Idlib brothers," he said.
Four Turkish soldiers were killed and nine others wounded in an intense artillery shooting by Syrian forces in Idlib, the last stronghold of rebels in Syria, the Turkish defense ministry said earlier in the day.