The Taliban have claimed responsibility for Monday's blast near the Green Village compound, which houses several international companies and charities, in eastern Kabul.
Three miltary personnel were among the dead, Afghan Interior Ministry spokesman Najib Danish said.
Various sources cite up to as many as 113 injured, including 14 women and 24 children, Afghanistan's Public Health Ministry spokesperson Wahidullah Mayar said.
"Most of them were injured by glass shrapnel injuries, they received required treatment and were discharged," Mayar said.
The explosion took place when a bomb-laden car blew up outside the high-security compound. It sits along the main road that connects Kabul to Jalalabad. The normally busy road was closed for hours.
Zabihullah Mujahid, a spokesperson for the Taliban, said the group's fighters were responsible for the attack. He claimed dozens of foreign and Afghan security forces were killed and wounded.
"Five attackers, including the suicide bomber driving an explosives-laden vehicle, were involved in the attack," Mujahid said in a statement.
Monday's attack took place as US peace envoy for Afghanistan Zalmay Khalilzad tours the region for meetings aimed at bringing an end to the country's 17-year-long war.
Last week, Taliban leaders called off a fourth round of talks with US officials in Qatar because of disagreements over the agenda of the meeting.
The Taliban has rejected numerous requests from regional powers to allow Afghan officials to take part in the peace talks, denouncing the government in Kabul as a "puppet" administration and instead insisting the US is their main adversary in the war in Afghanistan.